A total of 738 patients were included in the study and followed for around 34 months. The presence of PD-L1 and PD-1 receptors in the tumour cells was significantly associated with a higher tumour stage and the presence of tumour necrosis. PD-L1 receptors in tumour cells predicted a worse recurrence-free survival.
In conclusion, PD-L1 positivity was significantly associated with worse outcomes for patients with localised RCC. The presence of this marker may help identify those patients who need close follow-up after surgery and may benefit from checkpoint-inhibitor therapy after surgery (adjuvant treatment).