All patients had been treated with immunotherapy; nivolumab, pembrolizumab or ipilimumab. In the overall patient population, just over 2 in 5 patients had an immune-related side effect, nearly 10% of which were serious or life-threatening. For patients with an autoimmune disorder, this rose to nearly two thirds of patients, of which nearly 10% were serious or life-threatening. Most patients with a pre-existing autoimmune disorders and an immune-related side effect also experienced a flare of their disease.

In summary, compared with patients who didn’t have a pre-existing autoimmune disorder, immune-related side effects were more common in those with an autoimmune disorder. Women appeared to have more immune-related side effects than men, but this finding needs further investigation.

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